Courses

 

Environmental Studies Courses

ENVI 100Introduction to Weather and Climate

Last offered Spring 2020

How is it that we have such a hard time predicting if it's going to rain next week, but we can be confident in projections of future climate change decades from now? This course will explore the atmosphere and how air moves and changes, understanding the wind, clouds, precipitation, and extreme events (including thunderstorms, hurricanes, and tornados) that form our weather. Building off of our understanding of the atmosphere, we'll look at longer time scales to develop a basic understanding of earth's climate, global heat and moisture transport, climate change, and the ways that humans can change our planet. We will look at weather and climate models to learn how to scientists and meteorologists predict future conditions. Labs will include local field trips, bench top experiments, and running a climate model on a computer. This course is in the Oceans and Climate group for the Geosciences major. [ more ]

ENVI 101(F)Nature and Society: An Introduction to Environmental Studies

Environment and society interact on scales from the local to the global. This course explores these interactions and introduces students to the interdisciplinary methods of environmental studies. We will investigate the social, political, and historical aspects of environmental problems -- including environmental racism, species extinction, climate change, and more -- as well as their possible solutions. We will survey policy-making and activism in a variety of contexts and will examine art, literature, film, music, maps, advertisements, and other cultural objects. Throughout the course, we will ask how unequal distributions of power affect people and environments. Case studies, readings, discussions, and field exercises will help students develop their understanding how natural systems influence and are influenced by human activities. [ more ]

ENVI 102(S)Introduction to Environmental Science

Environmental Science is an interdisciplinary field that develops scientific and technical means for assessing and mitigating human impacts on the environment. This course provides an overview of the discipline in the context of the interconnected global earth system: the geosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. Students are introduced to scientific methods from physics, chemistry, geology, and biology that are used to examine real-world case studies at global and local scales. Topics may include: climate change, air and water pollution, resource extraction and management, land use change, and their effects on environmental quality, biodiversity, and human health. During weekly fieldwork and laboratory sessions, students gain hands-on experience in collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data that can be used to make recommendations for addressing local environmental issues. [ more ]

ENVI 103(F)Global Warming and Environmental Change

Earth is the warmest it has been for at least five centuries, and the surface of our planet is responding. From extreme floods and drought to landslides and soil erosion, the natural processes that shape Earth's surface are tied to temperature and precipitation. As those change, the landscape reacts. People are beginning to feel the impacts, but in different ways depending on where they call home. In this course, we will investigate how climate change is altering landscapes and the natural processes that support them, highlighting all the ways that people are being affected today. Ultimately, we will develop an understanding of the consequences of climate change that connects physical processes with the geography of place. Specific topics include foundations of the Earth system, plate tectonics and the construction of landscapes, Earth materials, rivers and flooding, hillslope processes, coastal processes, and climate impacts on natural resources such as fresh water and soil. Labs will use local field sites and analytical exercises to evaluate recent cases that reflect an interaction of the landscape and climate. This course is in the Sediments and Life group for the Geosciences major. [ more ]

ENVI 104(S)Oceanography

The oceans cover three quarters of Earth's surface, yet oceanography as a modern science is relatively young: the first systematic explorations of the geology, biology, physics and chemistry of the oceans began in the late 19th century. This introduction to ocean science includes the creation and destruction of ocean basins with plate tectonics; the source and transport of seafloor sediments and the archive of Earth history they contain; currents, tides, and waves; photosynthesis and the transfer of energy and matter in ocean food webs; the composition and origin of seawater, and how its chemistry traces biological, physical and geological processes; oceans and climate change; and human impacts. This course is in the Oceans and Climates group for the Geosciences major. [ more ]

ENVI 105The Co-Evolution of Earth and Life

Last offered Fall 2019

Our planet is about 4.6 billion years old and has supported life for at least the last 3.5 billion of those years. This course will consider the inter-related nature of Earth and the life that inhabits it, starting with the first living organisms and progressing to the interaction of our own species with the Earth today. Students will investigate the dynamic nature of the Earth-life system, examine many of its feedbacks, and learn about the dramatic changes that have occurred throughout the history of the Earth. We will ask questions such as: How did the Earth facilitate biologic evolution, and what effects did those biologic events have on the physical Earth? When did photosynthesis evolve, how can we detect that in the rock record, and how did this biological event lead to profound changes in the environment? How and why did animals evolve and what role did environmental change play in the radiation of animal life? How did the rise and radiation of land plants affect world climate? How do plate tectonics, glaciation, and volcanism influence biodiversity and evolutionary innovation? What caused mass extinctions in the past and what can that teach us about our current extinction crisis? Labs will involve hands-on analysis of rocks, fossils, and real-world data as well as conceptual and analytical exercises; field trips will contextualize major events in Earth history and will help students learn to read the rock record. Through these investigations, the class will provide a comprehensive overview of Earth history, with special attention paid to the geological and paleontological history of the northeastern United States. This course is in the Sediments and Life group for the Geosciences major. [ more ]

ENVI 108Energy Science and Technology

Last offered Fall 2019

Energy use has skyrocketed in the United States and elsewhere in the world, causing significant economic and political shifts, as well as concerns for the environment. This course will address the physics and technology of energy generation, consumption, and conservation. It will cover a wide range of energy sources, including fossil fuels, hydropower, solar energy, wind energy, and nuclear energy. We will discuss energy use in transportation, manufacturing, building heating, and building lighting. Students will learn to compare the efficiencies and environmental impacts of various energy sources and uses. [ more ]

ENVI 110 TThe Anthropocene: Nature and Culture in the Human Age

Last offered Spring 2018

In 2016, a group of scientists appointed by the International Commission on Stratigraphy, the body that keeps the official timetable of earth's history, argued that the planet has entered a new age known as the Anthropocene. Their questions were epochal: Has humanity become a geological force as powerful as those that have shaped the planet's deep past, such as ice sheets and asteroids? Have we truly entered "the human age," and if so, when did it begin and what does it all mean? This course will ask how researchers from different fields have sought to answer these questions. Just as important, it will ask how they became questions in the first place. Where did the idea of the Anthropocene come from? What are its social, political, and ethical implications? How we have arrived at this new understanding of our planet and ourselves? And what can this major intellectual shift-a shift that has already begun to send waves far beyond the academy into the worlds of art, literature, politics, and religion-tell us about the construction of environmental knowledge in the twenty-first century? Readings will come primarily from the environmental social sciences and humanities, including works by nineteenth and early twentieth-century environmental thinkers, but will be supplemented with material from the natural and environmental sciences. Topics will include climate change, mass extinction, urbanization, and deforestation. Our focus throughout will remain on ways of knowing, imagining, and representing global environmental change in an era of ever-expanding human influence. [ more ]

ENVI 154(F)The Tropics: Biology and Social Issues

This course counts towards the Biology major but is also accessible to non-majors. It explores the biological dimensions of social issues in tropical societies, and focuses specifically on the peoples of tropical regions in Africa, Asia, Latin America, Oceania, and the Caribbean. Tropical issues have become prominent on a global scale, and many social issues in the tropics are inextricably bound to human ecology, evolution, and physiology. The course highlights differences between the tropics and areas at higher latitudes. It begins with a survey of the tropical environment, including major climatic and habitat features. The next section focuses on human population biology, and emphasizes demography and the role of disease particularly malaria, AIDS and Covid-19 (SARS-CoV-2). The final part of the course covers the place of human societies in local and global ecosystems including the challenges of tropical food production and the interaction of humans with their supporting ecological environment. This course fulfills the DPE requirement. Through lectures, debates and readings, students confront social issues and policies from the perspective of biologists. This builds a framework for lifelong exploration of human diversity in terms of difference, power and equity. [ more ]

ENVI 201(F, S)The Geoscience of Epidemiology and Public Health

The Coronavirus pandemic has highlighted the many ways that diseases can be transmitted in the environment. As a society we are becoming aware of the many ways that geological processes and materials and influence human health, in ways both beneficial and dangerous. This course unites geoscience, biomedicine and public health approaches to address a wide range of environmental health problems. These include water-related illnesses (e.g. diarrhea, malaria); minerals and metals, both toxic (e.g. asbestos, arsenic) and essential (e.g. iodine); radioactive poisoning (e.g. radon gas); and the transport of pathogens by water and wind. In many cases, the environmental health problems disproportionately affect marginalised populations, contributing to greater disease and death among poor communities and populations of colour. We will examine the broad array of dynamic connections between human health and the natural world. We will discuss the social justice implications of a range of environmental health problems. And we will examine current research into how coronaviruses, such as the one causing COVID-19, are transported in the environment. This course is in the Sediments and Life group for the Geosciences Major. [ more ]

ENVI 203(F)Ecology

This course combines lectures with field and indoor laboratory exercises to explore factors that determine the distribution and abundance of plants and animals in natural systems. The course begins with an overall view of global patterns and then builds from the population to the ecosystem level. An emphasis is given to basic ecological principles and relates them to current environmental issues. Selected topics include population dynamics (competition, predation, mutualism); community interactions (succession, food chains and diversity) and ecosystem function (biogeochemical cycles, energy flow). In Fall 2020, the course will use a hybrid model, with recorded lecture material available to all students. In person and remote class meetings will focus on problem sets and interactive case studies. Labs will be available in either in person or remote modalities. Remote participants will have the opportunity to collect their own data for some lab exercises, while in other cases will receive background information and media describing the data collection process. All students will be required to complete all data analyses and written lab reports. [ more ]

ENVI 205Geomorphology

Last offered Fall 2018

Geomorphology is the study of landforms, the processes that shape them and the rates at which these processes change the landscape in which we live. The course is designed for Geosciences majors and for environmental studies students interested in the evolution of Earth's surface and the ways our activities are changing the physical environment. We will emphasize the influence of climatic, tectonic, and volcanic forces on landform evolution over relatively short periods of geologic time, generally thousands to a few millions of years. More recently, the impacts of human activity in reshaping landscapes, determining the movement of water, and changing climate could not be clearer. We will also examine how these impacts are affecting communities, including causes and possible solutions to environmental injustice. And we will learn a range of practical skills for describing physical environments and for predicting how they change, including field surveys, GIS analysis, and numerical modelling. This course is in the Sediments and Life group for the Geosciences major. [ more ]

ENVI 206(S)Global Environmental Politics

This course examines the history and current status of international environmental cooperation and conflict. We will consider the interactions of nation-states, multilateral international organizations, non-governmental organizations, and social movements in the formation of transnational environmental policy and treaties. We will also examine non-state approaches to global environmental challenges. After reviewing competing explanations for the causes of global environmental problems and diverse disciplinary approaches to studying those issues, we will read case studies covering a range of topics. These include fresh water conflict, fisheries and oceans, climate change, waste and pollution, agriculture, pesticides, population and development, wildlife, forestry, and consumerism. The reading assignments are drawn from the fields of environmental and foreign policy history, political science, international relations, geography, and anthropology in order to develop an interdisciplinary approach to international policy analysis. The written assignments are a series of policy briefs. You will also be responsible for two oral presentations during the semester, related to the policy briefs. [ more ]

ENVI 207Economic Geology and Earth Resources

Last offered Fall 2019

"If it can't be grown, it must be mined." We depend on the solid Earth for a huge array of resources. The metal in your soda can, the plastic in your Nalgene, the components of your computer, the glass in your window, the hydrocarbons being burned to keep you warm in the winter or to transport you in cars or aircraft, the cars and aircraft themselves: all are made of materials mined from the Earth. Right now there are more people building more houses, paving more roads, making more vehicles, more electronics, and more plastic packaging-all with geologic materials. As demand soars in both established and growing economies, and as we realize the environmental damage that can result from resource extraction and processing, the importance of understanding Earth's resources increases. Finding new deposits and managing those we have requires insight into the geology that underlies the location and origin of strategic Earth materials. This class introduces the geologic processes that control formation, distribution, and extent of materials reserves: dimension stone and gravel, base and precious metal ores, gemstones, petroleum, nuclear energy sources, and specialty materials for medical, technological, and military uses. This course is in the SOLID EARTH GROUP for the Geosciences major. [ more ]

ENVI 208(S)Saharan Imaginations

Literary representations of the Sahara challenge facile assumptions about this undertheorized place. Approached mainly through the prism of adventure and exploitation, the desert is portrayed as a dead space. However, literature and film furnish a unique opportunity to engage critically with the ways Maghrebi and Middle Eastern culture production represents deserts and raises issues of fundamental importance to these societies. This course offers students the opportunity to engage in close readings of novels and film through the theme of the Sahara and Saharan space. Reading through the politics of human mobility and life in the desert will help students to understand how myth, memory, history, coloniality/postcoloniality, and a strong sense of ethics are deeply intertwined in the Saharan sub-genre of African and Middle Eastern literatures. Whether grappling with transcontinental issues of climate change, cannibalization of biodiversity or overexploitation of natural resources, desert-focused cultural production invites us to think critically about the politics of space and place as well as mobility and spatial control as they relate to this supposedly dead nature. Deconstructing reductive Saharanisms, students will see the desert for what it is, rather than what it is portrayed to be or stand for. [ more ]

ENVI 209(F)Modern Climate

What will happen to the Earth's climate in the next century? What is contributing to sea level rise? Is Arctic sea ice doomed? In this course we will study the components of the climate system (atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere, biosphere and land surface) and the processes through which they interact. Greenhouse gas emission scenarios will form the basis for investigating how these systems might respond to human activity. This course will explore how heat and mass are moved around the atmosphere and ocean to demonstrate how the geographic patterns of climate change arise. We will also focus on climate feedback effects--like the albedo feedback associated with sea ice and glacier loss--and how these processes can accelerate climate change. In labs we will learn MATLAB to use process and full-scale climate models to investigate the behavior of these systems in response to increasing greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere. This course is in the Oceans and Climate group for the Geosciences major. [ more ]

ENVI 211Race and the Environment

Last offered Fall 2018

In contemporary societies, race remains an enduring impediment to the achievement of equality. Generally understood as a socially meaningful way of classifying human bodies hierarchically, race manifests itself in a number of arenas, including personal experience, economic production and distribution, and political organization. In this course, we will explore how race emerges in local and global environmental issues, like pollution and climate change. We will begin with a review of some of the landmark texts in Environmental Studies that address "environmental racism," like Robert Bullard's Dumping in Dixie and David Pellow's Garbage Wars. We will examine how and to what extent polluting facilities like landfills, oil refineries, and sewage treatment plants are disproportionately located in communities of color; we will also pay attention to how specific corporations create the underlying rationale for plotting industrial sites. After outlining some of the core issues raised in this scholarship, we will turn to cultural productions--like literature, film, and music--to understand how people of color respond to environmental injustice and imagine the natural world. [ more ]

ENVI 212 T(S)The Economics and Ethics of CO2 Offsets

Some electric utilities and other CO2 emission polluters are allowed to purchase carbon offsets to achieve a portion of their mandated emissions cuts, in effect, to pay others to reduce carbon emissions in their stead. Some individuals, college and universities, and for-profit and non-profit institutions have chosen voluntarily to purchase carbon offsets as a way of reducing their carbon footprint. But do offsets actually succeed in reducing carbon emissions? What separates a legitimate offset from one that is not? How should we measure the true impact of an offset? How do carbon offsets compare to other policies for reducing carbon emissions in terms of efficiency, equity, and justice? Is there something inherently wrong about "commodifying" the atmosphere? Is there something inherently wrong about selling or buying the right to pollute? Should colleges and universities be using the purchase of offsets to achieve "carbon neutrality?" [ more ]

ENVI 213(F)Introduction to Environmental and Natural Resource Economics

We'll use economics to learn why we harm the environment and overuse natural resources, and what we can do about it. We'll talk about whether and how we can put a dollar value on nature and ecosystem services. We'll study cost benefit analysis, pollution in general, climate change, environmental justice, natural resources (like fisheries, forests, and fossil fuels), and energy. We will take an economic approach to global sustainability, and study the relationship between the environment and economic growth and trade. Consideration of justice and equity will be woven through the whole semester. [ more ]

ENVI 214(S)Mastering GIS

The development of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has allowed us to investigate incredibly large and spatially complex data sets like never before. From assessing the effects of climate change on alpine glaciers, to identifying ideal habitat ranges for critically endangered species, to determining the vulnerability of coastal communities to storms, GIS tools have opened the door for important, large-scale environmental analyses. And as these technologies improve, our ability to understand the world grows ever greater. This course will teach you how to use GIS tools to investigate environmental problems. We will review fundamental principles in geography, the construction and visualization of geospatial datasets, and tools for analyzing geospatial data. Special attention will also be given to analysis of remotely sensed (satellite) imagery and to collection of field data. By the end of the course, you will be able to conduct independent GIS-based research and produce maps and other geospatial imagery of professional quality. [ more ]

ENVI 215(F)Climate Changes

In recent years, there has been a growing public and scientific interest in the Earth's climate and its variability. This interest reflects both concern over future climate changes resulting from anthropogenic increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases and growing recognition of the economic impact of "natural" climate variability (for example, El Niño events), especially in the developing world. Efforts to understand the Earth's climate system and predict future climate changes require both study of parameters controlling present day climate and detailed studies of climate changes in the past. In this course, we will review the processes that control the Earth's climate, like solar radiation, the greenhouse effect, ocean circulation, configuration of continents, and positive and negative feedbacks. At the same time, we will review the geological record of climate changes in the past, examining their causes. Laboratories and problem sets will emphasize developing problem solving skills as well as sampling and interpreting geological archives of climate change. This course is in the Oceans and Climate group for the Geosciences major. [ more ]

ENVI 216(S)Philosophy of Animals

Animals are and always have been part of human life. To name just a few ways: We treat animals as companions, as food, as objects of wonder in the wild, as resources to be harvested, as testing grounds for science, and as religious sacrifice. The abstract philosophical question before us is, what are animals such that they can be all these things? In this course we aim to engage that abstract question through two more focused projects. Firstly, we will try to understand the mental lives of non-human animals. Secondly, we will try to make sense of the moral dimensions of our relationship to animals. Throughout we will aim to fuse a rigorous scientific perspective with more humanistic themes and philosophical inquiry. Topics include sentience, animal cognition, language in non-human animals, empathy and evolution, the history of domestication, animal rights, cross-cultural views on animals, arguments against and for vegetarianism and veganism, the morality of zoos, hunting and fishing, and pets and happiness. [ more ]

ENVI 217Landscape, Place and Power

Last offered Fall 2018

How does culture shape the way we imagine, use, and experience the physical environment, and how does the physical environment shape culture in turn? What can landscapes tell us about the values, beliefs, and ideas of the people who make them? What is the relationship between place and social power? This course will explore the various ways in which scholars from a broad range of disciplines have sought to answer these questions by incorporating insights from social theory and cultural criticism. Focusing on studies of place and landscape in the Americas from the time of European colonization to the present, it will examine key works from fields such as cultural geography, environmental history, ecocriticism, environmental philosophy, and anthropology, and it will survey the major methodological and theoretical commitments that unite these fields. [ more ]

ENVI 218"Ecologismo": Literature, Culture and the Environment in Latin America

Last offered Spring 2019

How have Latin American authors and artists responded to environmental concerns, from the logging and rubber booms that threatened the Amazon in the early 20th century to contemporary global warming? How do the realities of Latin American societies--including massive disparities of wealth and poverty; the cultural and political impacts of the region's indigenous populations; and the complex histories of colonialism, dependency and neoliberalism--inform Latin American responses to environmental issues? How does Latin America's environmental imaginary differ from those of the U.S. and Europe? In this course we will explore these issues and more through literature and other cultural texts from Latin America. We will consider short stories and novellas by authors including Horacio Quiroga (Uruguay), Luis Sepúlveda (Chile), Mempo Giardinelli (Argentina), and Ana Cristina Rossi (Costa Rica); poetry by Esthela Calderón (Nicaragua), Juan Carlos Galeano (Colombia), Homero Aridjis (Mexico); the paintings of Tomás Sánchez (Cuba); and feature films as well as shorter documentaries. In Spanish. [ more ]

ENVI 219 T(F)Evolution of and on Volcanic Islands

Plate tectonic theory accounts for the vast majority of volcanic islands in ocean basins. They form above mantle plume hot spots (Hawaiian and Galapagos Islands), subduction zones (Aleutian and Indonesian arcs), and mid-ocean ridges (Azores and Ascension Island). Iceland is unusual because it is located above a hot spot and the mid-Atlantic ridge. Each plate tectonic setting produces chemically distinctive magmas, and the lifespan of volcanic islands varies widely. Islands above hot spots may be geographically remote and emergent for only several million years, but be part of a long-lived sequence of islands that persists for over a hundred million years. In contrast, island arc volcanoes belong to long geographically continuous chains of volcanoes, commonly in close proximity to continents. This tutorial explores the geologic evolution and lifespan of volcanic islands from formation to submergence, and searches for correlations between these characteristics and plate tectonic setting. We will also consider how geographic isolation, areal extent, lifespan, and climate affect biological evolution on volcanic islands.There will be weekly tutorial meetings with pairs of students, and students will alternate writing papers on assigned topics. This course is in the Solid Earth group for the Geosciences major. [ more ]

ENVI 220Field Botany and Plant Natural History

Last offered Spring 2020

This field-lecture course covers the evolutionary and ecological relationships among plant groups represented in our local and regional flora. Lectures focus on the evolution of the land plants, the most recent and revolutionary developments in plant systematics and phylogeny, characteristics of plant families, the cultural and economic uses of plants and how plants have shaped our world. The labs cover field identification, natural history and the ecology of local species. [ more ]

ENVI 221Introduction to Urban Studies: Shaping and Living the City

Last offered Fall 2017

Generally, cities have been described either as vibrant commercial and cultural centers or as violent and decaying urban slums. In an effort to begin to think more critically about cities, this course introduces important topics in the interdisciplinary field of Urban Studies. Specifically, we will discuss concepts and theories used to examine the peoples and structures that make up cities: In what ways do socio-cultural, economic, and political factors affect urban life and development? How are cities planned and used by various stakeholders (politicians, developers, businesses, and residents)? How do people make meaning of the places they inhabit? We will pay particular attention to the roles of race, ethnicity, class, and gender in understanding and interpreting urban communities. Texts include works by anthropologists, historians, sociologists, cultural critics, cultural geographers, and literary writers. [ more ]

Taught by: Mérida Rúa

Catalog details

ENVI 222 T(F)Examining Inconvenient Truths: Climate Science meets U.S. Senate Politics

Former President Barack Obama once said: "There's one issue that will define the contours of this century more dramatically than any other, and that is the urgent threat of a changing climate." While consensus regarding the causes and impacts of climate change has been growing steadily among scientists and researchers (and to some extent, the general public) over the past two decades, the U.S. has yet to confront this issue in a manner consistent with its urgency. This lack of action in the U.S. is at least partly due to the fact that science provides necessary but insufficient information towards crafting effective climate change legislation and the unfortunate fact that climate change has become a highly partisan issue. The primary objective of this tutorial will be to help students develop a greater understanding of the difficulties associated with crafting climate change legislation, with an emphasis on the role of science and politics within the legislative process. To this end, the tutorial will address how the underlying scientific complexities embedded in most climate policies (e.g., offsets, carbon capture and sequestration, uncertainty and complexity of the climate system, leakage) must be balanced by and blended with the different operational value systems (e.g., economic, social, cultural, religious) that underlie U.S. politics. Over the course of this tutorial, students will develop a nuanced sense of how and when science can support the development of comprehensive national climate change legislation within the current partisan climate. This course will take a practical approach, where students will craft weekly policy oriented documents (e.g., policy memos, action memos, research briefs) targeted to selected members of the current U.S. Senate Environment and Public Works Committee, the committee that has historically held jurisdiction over a majority of the major climate change bills that have moved through the legislative process. This course is in the Oceans and Climate group for the Geosciences major. [ more ]

ENVI 223 TColonial Landscapes: Latin America's Contemporary Environmental Literature

Last offered Fall 2014

"It is not by coincidence that our societies are both racist and anti-ecological," wrote the Chilean sociologist Fernando Mires in his now-classic study, The Discourse of Nature. This tutorial explores works of contemporary literature that implicitly and explicitly link Latin America's ongoing environmental crisis to the region's long and multi-layered history of colonialism: novels by Sylvia Iparraguirre (Argentina), Mayra Montero (Puerto Rico), Giaconda Belli (Nicaragua), Luis Sepúlveda (Chile); poetry by Homero Aridjis (México); essays by Octavio Paz (Mexico), Eduardo Viveiros de Castro (Brazil), and more. Representing a wide variety of geographies, literary styles and ideological perspectives, these writers nevertheless converge in challenging us to consider the effects of environmental crisis within structures of power that are radically unequal at the local, national, and global levels; and to recognize that consciousness of environmental vulnerability can prompt new forms of inclusion and community as well as exclusion. Topics to be explored also include the role of indigenous cosmologies in contemporary environmental politics, the place of urban ecologies within the environmental imaginary, and the ongoing debates among academic critics and others regarding the scope and methodologies of ecocriticism as an approach to Latin American literature. Students have the option of tutorial in Spanish or in English; partners will be assigned accordingly. Each tutorial pair will meet with me for one hour during the week, during which time we will discuss a 5-page paper that one of the partners has submitted the night before. This adds up to a substantial amount of (reading and) writing for each student in the course, i.e., six 5-page essays over the course of the semester. [ more ]

ENVI 224(F)The Rise and Fall of Civilizations

Over the centuries, philosophers and historians have asked how societies evolved from simple hunter-gatherer bands to complex urban civilizations. Human prehistory and history have shown the repeated cycles of the rise, expansion and collapse of early civilizations in both the Old and New World. What do the similarities and differences in the development of these first civilizations tell us about the nature of societal change, civilization and the state, and human society itself? The course will examine these issues through an introductory survey of the earliest civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, India, Mesoamerica and South America. Classical and modern theories on the nature, origin, and development of the state will be reviewed in light of the archaeological evidence. [ more ]

ENVI 225 TSustainable Food & Agriculture

Last offered Fall 2018

A tutorial course investigating patterns, processes, and stability in human-dominated, food production systems. The course will examine sustainable food and agriculture from an ecological perspective. Topics will include: changes in diversity, concentration, and scale, flows of energy, circulation (or not) of fertilizer nutrients, carbon balances in soils, and stability of food production, processing, and distribution ecosystems. A day-long field experience will take place on a local farm. [ more ]

Taught by: Henry Art

Catalog details

ENVI 228 TWater as a Scarce Resource

Last offered Fall 2017

For a variety of reasons including environmental pollution, urbanization, changing agricultural techniques, resource mismanagement, and the consequences of climate change, water is becoming a scarce resource even in places where it was relatively plentiful in the past, and it is likely to become an increasingly scarce resource over the coming decades. In this course we will use basic economic models to consider policy issues relating to water: Is access to water a basic human right, and if so, what market and non-market mechanisms should play a role in water allocation? Does public ownership of water improve the way it is provided and used? Why do societies differ in their approaches to allocating water and are some systems better than others? What does it mean to have a property right to water? Could private property rights to water help address the water pollution problem? How can societies change their water-related property rights, regulations and social institutions when individuals have implicit or explicit rights to the institutional status quo? Who has the right to water that crosses international boundaries? How should societies allocate water across generations? [ more ]

ENVI 229Environmental History

Last offered Spring 2020

This course is an introduction to Environmental History: the study of how people have shaped environments, how environments have shaped human histories, and how cultural change and material change are intertwined. As such, it challenges traditional divides between the humanities and the sciences. Taking U.S. environmental history as our focus, we will strive to understand the historical roots of contemporary environmental problems, such as species extinction, pollution, and climate change. We will take field trips to learn to read landscapes for their histories and to examine how past environments are represented in museum exhibits, digital projects, and physical landscapes. And we will develop original arguments and essays based on archival research. It is imperative that we understand this history if we are to make informed and ethical environmental decisions at the local, national, and global scale. [ more ]

ENVI 231The African Anthropocene

Last offered Fall 2019

Despite its low contributions to global carbon emissions, the continent of Africa is predicted to experience some of the worst effects of climate change. This interdisciplinary course investigates the causes and consequences of this troubling contradiction. It positions the African continent as an important site for understanding how legacies of empire, racial and gendered inequality, resource extraction, and capital accumulation impact contemporary global environmental politics. Students will engage theoretical texts, reports from international organizations, films, poetry, novels, and web-based content. Topics include: humanism/post-humanism; migration and displacement; representations of conflict; and sustainable development. [ more ]

ENVI 232The Garden in the Ancient World

Last offered Spring 2019

Drawing on the literature, art, and archaeology of ancient gardens and on real gardens of the present day, this course examines the very nature and experience of the garden and the act of gardening. Using a multi-disciplinary approach, we will explore the garden as a paradise; as a locus for philosophical discussion and religious encounter; as a site of labor, conquest, and resistance; and as a place for solace, inspiration, and desire. This course will be grounded in crucial readings from antiquity, such as the Hebrew Bible, Homer, Sappho, Cicero, Lucretius, Vergil, Horace, Columella, and Augustine, and in the perspectives of more modern writers, from Jane Austen and Tom Stoppard to contemporary cultural historian George McKay. Ultimately, our goal is to analyze conceptions and expressions of beauty, power, and love-in the garden. All readings are in translation. [ more ]

ENVI 233(S)Latin American Environmental Literature and Cultural Production

This course explores a wide array of eco-cultural texts from Latin America. Our readings begin with the Europeans' first arrival and end with the crisis of mass extinction and anthropogenic climate change today. In between we will consider an eclectic mix of styles and genres, including letters, travel diaries, poetry, essays, prose fiction and speeches produced by a varied group of cultural agents. We will examine classic texts by canonical figures (José Martí's "Our América," the Popol vuh), which take on new meaning in the current context, as well as some little-known gems of ecological consciousness. Readings and discussion will trace connections between ecological cultures and the region's long and multi-layered history of colonial. Conducted in English. [ more ]

ENVI 234(S)Economics of Developing Countries

The leaders of developing countries almost universally proclaim "economic development" to be their eventual destination, but it is not easy to visualize the journey. Is rapid economic growth sufficient to generate development, or do governments need to invest proactively in health, education and social protection? Can agriculture support incomes and provide jobs, or is urban industrial development a prerequisite? How do households in developing countries insure themselves against adverse outcomes? Can policies enable entrepreneurship and innovation in such economies? Is it true that corruption is a significant obstacle? Has the climate crisis upended our traditional models to the point where we need to rethink the notion of development? How does the global COVID-19 pandemic threaten the progress developing countries have achieved, and what policy responses will be most effective in addressing the crisis? The class will introduce these and other issues, as analyzed by economists. [ more ]

ENVI 235Survival and Resistance: Environmental Political Theory

Last offered Spring 2019

Contemporary struggles to reverse environmental destruction and establish sustainable communities have prompted some political theorists to rethink longstanding assumptions about politics and its relationship to nature. Does the environment have "rights"? What, if anything, is the difference between an ecosystem and a political community? Is democracy dangerous to the planet's health? Are environmental protections compatible with political freedom? How is the domination or conquest of nature connected with domination and conquest within human societies? What does justice demand in an age of climate change? In this class, we will consider the promise and limits of political theory to illuminate present day environmental crises and foster movements to overcome them. We will engage classic texts that helped to establish political theory's traditional view of nature as a resource, as well as contemporary texts that offer alternative, ecological understandings of nature and its entwinements with politics. Class will be driven primarily by discussion. Students will have significant responsibility for setting the agenda for discussions through informal writing submitted prior to class. As a writing intensive course, attention to the writing process and developing an authorial voice will be a recurrent focus of our work inside and outside the classroom. [ more ]

Taught by: TBA

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ENVI 238(F)Sustainable Economic Growth

Is it possible to have infinite economic growth on a finite planet? This question has sparked a great deal of inquiry across the social sciences. Some argue that we need to slow or even end economic growth to prevent environmental catastrophe. Others argue that market forces, especially changing prices and improved technology, will ensure that growth can continue unabated without significant negative consequences. Still others argue that government intervention is necessary to limit negative consequences of economic progress, but that effective interventions are still compatible with sustained economic growth. In this class, we will explore the insights that economics has to offer on this important question. We will start by considering the importance of finite inputs used in production, including fossil fuels, minerals, and land, among others. Then, we will consider whether undesirable byproducts of economic growth will prevent sustained growth. This second part of class will place a lot of emphasis on climate change. Throughout the class, we will pay special attention to the role that government intervention can or cannot play in promoting sustainable economic growth. This class will reinforce important concepts taught in introductory microeconomics and introductory macroeconomics. [ more ]

ENVI 239Introduction to Ecocriticism: North-South Dialogues on Nature and Culture

Last offered Fall 2010

This course will introduce students to the study of the relationship between literature and the environment, often referred to as 'ecocriticism,' through careful examination of Jean de Léry's 1577 History of a Voyage to the Land of Brazil and related texts. Léry's fascinating account of a yearlong stay among the 'cannibals' of Brazil gets at many of the themes and debates taken up by ecocritics today: How do political, economic, religious and philosophical factors influence individual and collective conceptions of 'nature' and its value? How do acts of reading and writing inform (or deform) our understanding of the 'natural' world? What is the role of aesthetics in environmental politics, and how can unspoken assumptions about race, gender, and cultural difference influence representations of global environmental issues like deforestation and global warming? Envi 239/Comp 238 fulfills the goals of the Exploring Diversity Initiative by contextualizing current questions of international environmental policy within the long history of colonialism, challenging students to think about cultural diversity as well as economic inequality as relevant to contemporary debates about the value and distribution of natural resources. In addition to Léry's History, we will also read landmarks of ecocritical theory by scholars including Lawrence Buell, William Cronon, Candace Slater and Jorge Marcone, as well as more recent literary interventions into environmental issues in the Americas. [ more ]

ENVI 240 TConservation and Climate Change

Last offered Fall 2019

What does climate change mean for the future of Earth's 8.7 million-or-so species? This tutorial introduces students to an emerging literature on how climate change alters the distributions, behaviors, and interactions of plant and animal species. In it we will pay close attention to how to read a scientific paper and how to write about science from the discipline of environmental studies. Some of the questions we will consider include: How is scientific knowledge produced? What might the biotic world look like in 10, 100, and 1000 years? How are conservation and restoration practitioners responding to climate change? To what extent can local environmental management alter global trends? [ more ]

ENVI 241The Politics of Waste

Last offered Spring 2020

Waste is not just a fact of life, it is a political practice. To create and maintain political order requires devising collective means to pile up, bury, burn, or otherwise dispose of stuff deemed dirty or disorderly: waste management is regime management. In turn, our feelings of disgust for anything deemed waste shape political deliberation and action on environmental policy, immigration, food production, economic distribution, and much more. The very effort to define "waste" raises thorny political questions: What (or who) is disposable? Why do we find the visible presence of certain kinds of things or persons to be unbearably noxious? How should we respond to the fact that these unbearable beings persist in existing, despite our best efforts to eliminate them? What is our individual and collective responsibility for creating and disposing of waste? Serious inquiry into waste is rare in political theory and political science--perhaps understandably, given that the study of politics is shaped by the same taboos that shape politics. In this seminar we will openly discuss unmentionable topics and get our hands dirty (sometimes literally) examining the politics of waste. We will take notice of the erasure of waste in traditional political theory and work together to fill these gaps. To do so, we will draw on work in anthropology, critical theory, history, urban studies, and waste management science; representations of waste in popular culture; and experiences with waste in our lives. This course is part of a joint program between Williams' Center for Learning in Action and the Berkshire County Jail in Pittsfield, MA. The class will be composed equally of nine Williams students and nine inmates and will be held at the jail. An important goal of the course is to encourage students from different backgrounds to think together about issues of common human concern. Transportation will be provided by the college. *Please note the atypical class hours, Wed 4:45-8:30 pm* [ more ]

ENVI 242The Country and the City in the Classical World

Last offered Spring 2020

A growing urban-rural divide is defining political discourse around the world. The interrelation and tension between "city" and "countryside" are not new, however, but date back to the time when cities first began. How do cities occupy and transform, interact with and displace rural landscapes? What are the values, stereotypes, and ideals--as well as artistic, literary, and architectural forms--associated with the city and the countryside? What role does one play in the political, social, and economic life of the other? With a focus on ancient Greece and, especially, Rome, this course will combine archaeological evidence and contemporary scholarship with primary sources ranging from Hesiod, Theocritus, Vergil, and Propertius to Cato the Elder, Varro, Vitruvius, and Pliny the Elder, to examine an array of topics including land surveying and colonization; agrarian legislation; the urban food supply; rustic religion in the city; urban parks and gardens; and the concept of the pastoral. Together, we will explore the city and the countryside - not just as places, but also as states of mind. All readings are in translation. [ more ]

ENVI 243 T(S)Reimagining Rivers

Rivers are the circulatory systems of civilization, yet for much of modern history they have been treated as little more than sewers, roads, and sources of power. Today they are in crisis. Rivers and the people who rely on them face a multitude of problems, including climate change, pollution, unsustainable agriculture, and ill-conceived dams. These problems will threaten human rights, public health, political stability, and ecological resilience far into the future unless we learn to manage rivers more justly and sustainably. Can we reimagine rivers before it is too late? This course will pursue this question by examining the social, cultural, and political dimensions of conflict over rivers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Drawing on scholarship from a wide range of social science and humanities disciplines and focusing on case studies in Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Americas, it will explore a diverse array of sources: film, fiction, ethnography, history, journalism, and more. [ more ]

ENVI 244 T(S)Environmental Ethics

What ethical standards should guide our individual and societal choices when those choices affect current and future environmental conditions? This course will introduce students to fundamental concepts, methods, and issues in environmental ethics. Initial tutorial meetings will focus on theoretical materials that will background later discussions and will include classic readings from the environmental ethics literature (e.g., Leopold, Taylor, Rolston). Subsequent sessions will pair readings about key concepts with specific cases that raise complex ethical issues, including the concept of moral standing and, e.g., people who do not yet exist, non-human individuals, species, and complex living systems; the concept of moral responsibility and complicity in environmentally damaging practices; the legitimacy of cost-benefit analysis as an environmental policy tool; and the valuation of human lives. [ more ]

ENVI 245 T(F)Hydrothermal Vents

Hydrothermal vents are perhaps the most alien places on Earth. Many are located on active volcanoes, especially at mid-ocean ridges, where magma super-heats water to form underwater hot springs. Others are located at deep-sea fracture zones, where the exothermic reaction of serpentinization provides the heat to drive hydrothermal circulation. Hydrothermal vents are extreme environments which host unique organisms, like giant tubeworms and giant hydrothermal clams, that are found only at these deep sea oases. This tutorial will examine how and where hydrothermal vents form, the strange and ancient life there, and why they are relevant despite feeling so far removed from our daily lives. Hydrothermal vent science draws on geology, physics, chemistry, and biology, so prior interest or coursework in one or more of those fields is suggested. This course is in the Oceans and Climate group for the Geosciences major. [ more ]

ENVI 246(F)Race, Power, & Food History

Have you ever wondered why Spam is so popular in Hawaii and why Thai food is available all across the United States? Are you curious why black-eyed peas and collards are considered "soul food"? In this course, we will answer these questions by digging in to the histories of global environmental transformation through colonialism, slavery, and international migration. We will consider the production and consumption of food as a locus of power over the last 300 years. Beginning with the rise of the Atlantic slave trade and continuing through the 20th century, we trace the global movement of plants, foods, flavors, workers, businesses, and agricultural knowledge. Major units include rice production by enslaved people in the Americas; Asian American food histories during the Cold War; and fat studies critiques of obesity discourse. We will discuss food justice, food sovereignty, and contemporary movements for food sustainability in the context of these histories and our contemporary world. Readings are interdisciplinary, but our emphasis will be on historical analyses of race, labor, environment, health, and gender. [ more ]

ENVI 248 T"Our Response Will Define Our Future": Climate Change Policy Analysis

Last offered Fall 2019

In 2014, UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon declared: climate change is "the defining issue of our age. It is defining our present. Our response will define our future." In this tutorial, we will examine a broad range of proposed, and currently implemented, policy responses to this grand challenge. We will employ policy analysis to evaluate these strategies' effectiveness and viability. This tutorial will consider approaches at varied scales (ranging from university campuses to coordinated global action) and addressing different sectors (including transportation, energy generation, and food production). [ more ]

Taught by: Pia Kohler

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ENVI 249Food, Agriculture, and Globalization

Last offered Spring 2020

This course examines the history and current politics of the international political economy of food with a focus on how agriculture and food provisioning have been transformed through imperialism and globalization. We examine the interactions of corporations, nation-states, multilateral international organizations, non-governmental organizations, and social movements in the formation of a globalized food system. Topics include the historical antecedents of our present system, plantation agriculture, the influences of war and settler colonialism on global food production, Cold War transformations in the international food system, the origins of sustainable development discourse, international anti-hunger programs, fair trade and other labeling schemes, labor migration, the antiglobalization and local food movements, and neoliberalism. We will pay particular attention to theories about how producers and consumers are connected to one other through the political economy of food. The reading assignments are drawn from the fields of environmental, food, and policy history, and we will also read works from political scientists, international relations scholars, geographers, anthropologists, and advocacy organizations. [ more ]

ENVI 250Environmental Justice

Last offered Spring 2020

How are local and global environmental problems distributed unevenly according to race, gender, and class? What are the historical, social and economic structures that create unequal exposures to environmental risks and benefits? And how does inequity shape the construction and distribution of environmental knowledge? These are some of the questions we will take up in this course, which will be reading and discussion intensive. Through readings, discussions, and case studies, we will explore EJ in both senses. Potential topics include: toxics exposure, food justice, urban planning, e-waste, unnatural hazards, nuclearism in the U.S. West, natural resources and war, and climate refugees. Occasionally, community leaders, organizers, academics, and government officials will join the class to discuss current issues. [ more ]

ENVI 251Science and Militarism in the Modern World

Last offered NA

In 1961, United States President Dwight D. Eisenhower warned of the global dangers of what he called the "military-industrial complex." In this course, we will interrogate the military-scientific complex, or the imbrication of militarism and scientific knowledge. Surveying conflicts from the colonial wars of the late 19th century through to the present-day War on Terror, this course will consider how empire, networks of expert knowledge, resource extraction, environmental contamination, and land degradation have shaped the modern world. Students will engage a range of textual materials including books, films, photographs, and news reports. [ more ]

Taught by: TBA

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ENVI 255Environmental Observation

Last offered Fall 2019

To study the environment, we need to observe and measure it. We collect data--numbers that represent system states--and analyze them to create understanding of the world we live in. Advances in technology create more opportunities to discover how the planet works. Through a survey of observational approaches (including weather stations, direct sampling, radar, community-based monitoring, and other techniques), this course will investigate the process of turning a physical property in the environment into a number on a computer and then into meaningful information. We will explore both direct field measurements and remote sensing techniques, diving into how to choose the appropriate sensor for a scientific question, how sensors work, analysis approaches and statistical methods, and how to interpret the resulting data. We will also learn how to mitigate measurement bias through a combination of lab experiments and field work and how to make interpretations of measurements that accurately reflect what is being measured. The course will focus on the near-surface environment, including the atmosphere, water, and biosphere. Students will carry out a research project using observation techniques covered in class to explore a scientific question of interest. This course is in the Oceans and Climate group for the Geosciences major. [ more ]

ENVI 259New England Environmental History

Last offered Spring 2019

Have you ever wondered why there are few old-growth forests in New England? What Williamstown looked like before Williams was founded? How ideas about environmental preservation have changed over time? These are some of the questions we will explore in this course, which introduces students to the discipline of Environmental History through New England examples. During the semester we will: (1) read and discuss scholarship on the environmental history of New England and the world; (2) use case studies and field trips to examine how past environments are represented in museum exhibits,digital projects, and physical landscapes; (3) Develop a research paper based on original archival research [ more ]

ENVI 261 T(S)Science and Militarism in the Modern World

In 1961, United States President Dwight D. Eisenhower warned about the global dangers of what he called the "military-industrial complex." In this course, we will interrogate the military-scientific complex, or the imbrication of militarism and scientific knowledge. Surveying conflicts from World War II through to the present-day War on Terror, this course will consider how empire, networks of expert knowledge, resource extraction, environmental contamination, and land degradation have shaped the modern world. Students will engage a range of textual materials including books, films, photographs, and news reports. Course requirements include weekly writing assignments and participation in small group discussions. [ more ]

ENVI 263(F, S)The Global Ocean: An Interdisciplinary Introduction

Though it covers most of the planet, the ocean's importance to everyday life is easy to overlook. Its roles as a cultural symbol, resource, highway, and climate regulator make it essential to life around the world. This interdisciplinary course, team-taught by the faculty of the Williams-Mystic Program, will examine key issues in each of the world's oceans while introducing students to the ways these issues connect multiple disciplines and transcend physical, political, and imaginary ocean boundaries. By drawing on the expertise of the five professors -- from humanities, social sciences, and sciences -- this course facilitates the critical study of the ocean from an interdisciplinary perspective and helps them consider their own role in the shifting relationship between humanity and the ocean. This seminar-style course will meet twice a week online, with students assessed by their participation, response papers, and final project, while helping them apply interdisciplinary skills to pressing sustainability issues connecting the environment and society. [ more ]

Taught by: Lisa Gilbert, Catherine Robinson Hall, Tim Pusack, Sofia Zepeda, Ned Schaumberg

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ENVI 265(F)Coral Reefs: Ecology, Threats, & Conservation

Coral reefs are a fascinating ecosystem found throughout the world's tropical oceans. Corals can thrive in nutrient-poor oceans because of the mutualistic relationship with algal symbionts. And as a foundational species, corals provide a habitat for numerous species, possibly the highest diversity found on the planet. However, these complex and beautiful ecosystems are declining worldwide from a variety of local and global threats. In this course, we will explore coral reef ecology through an in-depth examination of the biotic and abiotic factors contributing to the ecosystem's functioning. We will also investigate the causes and consequences of threats to coral reefs, such as ocean warming, ocean acidification, and resource extraction. Finally, we will identify the many efforts worldwide to conserve coral reefs and promote their resilience. In this seminar course, offered remotely, you will demonstrate your proficiency through knowledge assessments, short writing reflections, a virtual coral fragmentation experiment, and a creative advocacy project. This course aims to deepen your awareness of the complex species interactions on coral reefs and the physical factors affecting coral survival while fostering hope through current conservation efforts. [ more ]

ENVI 266(S)Reading Water

Water has such profound and far-reaching influence on individuals, societies, and the planet that it simultaneously risks going overlooked and appearing clichéd. Human beings are made of it and need it to live, yet will die if immersed in it. It is venerated by cultures around the world, yet most people either cannot access clean water, or don't know where their clean water is piped in from. It covers the earth's surface, and has shaped it over eons, yet scientists are still not sure how it came to be here in the first place. This wide-ranging influence also presents challenges for traditional academic structures; thinking about water demands crossing times, spaces, and disciplines. This course will explore the wide-ranging and diverse ways water impacts individuals, cultures, and the environments they call home by drawing on a range of content: hydrology, literature, political theory, storytelling, geography, and more. To do this, we will also develop and examine methods of critically reading as "non-experts"--reading scientific articles as rhetorical objects and reading for scientific principles in literature, for instance--to explore what interdisciplinary thinking opens up (and inhibits), and thus how to effectively engage with and create interdisciplinary work. The goal here is not to define water's cultural or scientific importance, or to determine which disciplines "best" combine to explain water, or to come up with humanities-based solutions to "the water crisis." Rather, these texts, and the water that flows through them will help us explore the opportunities and limits of human perceptions of the other-than-human world. It will help us consider the extent to which those perceptions both shape, and are shaped by, a seemingly simple molecule. And it will help us imagine epistemologies and ontologies that account for the ways water simultaneously flows through us, around us, and through the deep geological history of the planet. [ more ]

Taught by: Ned Schaumberg

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ENVI 267(F)Coastal Communities and Climate Justice

Climate change poses extraordinary challenges to our country's coastal communities; the impacts of which will not be borne equally. Access to innovative technological, scientific, financial and legal resources is controlled by policy makers. Equal access is critical for the sustainability of our coastal communities. But fair decisions require vulnerable communities to have a voice in local climate change adaptation decisions. This seminar course will introduce you to basic concepts of climate justice in the context of our Nation's coastal communities, guided by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. The course will introduce you to fundamental coastal and ocean-based climate-induced impacts with a focus on sea level rise, ocean warming, ocean acidification and coastal infrastructure. We will examine these impacts, as well as local, state, regional and federal policy responses to them through the lens of climate justice. We will identify what's working and what more needs to be done to advance climate equity and justice in the wake of formidable global and local change. Proficiency will be demonstrated through class participation, work conducted in small group strategy exercises, discussion board posts, short research assessment papers and a final written project. There are three goals in this course: first to broaden your understanding of the disproportionate effects of climate change to underrepresented, disempowered, poor, urban and indigenous populations living in American coastal communities; second to provide you with tools to identify inequity; third, to increase your own voice to promote avenues to seek climate justice. [ more ]

ENVI 268(S)Debating Ocean Biodiversity at the Intersection of Science and Policy

Biodiversity in the ocean is facing an onslaught of challenges, both directly and indirectly. It is likely that we are undergoing a sixth mass extinction event, where diversity of life on earth is stunningly at risk. Fortunately, however, we are also finding innovative ways to solve issues and attempt to stave off these dramatic changes to our ecosystems. These solutions potentially have both positive and negative effects. Difficult tradeoffs must be weighed and decisions must be made as people wrestle with known knowns, known unknowns, and unknown unknowns. In this class, we will explore five issues that relate to biodiversity in the ocean. You will have the opportunity to investigate one side of an issue, to collect supporting information, and to advocate for your position all while learning about current biodiversity issues in the ocean. You will be challenged to weigh conflicting evidence to find a positive outcome. Throughout the class you will practice critical thinking, evaluation, and synthesizing skills as you work with multiple viewpoints. Class time will include lecture, in-class group work, and student-led debates of timely, controversial issues. You will be assessed on summaries of information, reflections on topics, and a final project on an issue of your choice relating to ocean biodiversity. [ more ]

ENVI 270Environmental Problems: Social Causes, Consequences, and Policy Solutions

Last offered Spring 2018

This course will provide an overview of the social causes and consequences of environmental problems, especially within the US context. Special attention will be paid to the variety of actors that shape environmental outcomes, including legislators, administrators, the science community, civil society and the private sector. We will examine different proposed solutions to environmental problems and models of environmental policy-making, including at the local, state and federal level. This course will focus on several case studies, including air and water pollution, agricultural runoff, climate change and endangered species protection. [ more ]

Taught by: Pia Kohler

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ENVI 272 T(S)Earth Hazards and Risks

As individuals, communities, and societies we live with risk from a variety of natural hazards. Depending on where we live, we may be more at risk from hurricanes, volcanoes, earthquakes, flooding, landslides, drought, wildfire, asteroids, or other hazards. Which hazards can be predicted? How far in advance and with what uncertainty? How we evaluate our risks from hazards is important for how we make decisions for ourselves and how we engage with others in decision-making. In this tutorial, we will examine the innovative ways earth scientists currently forecast these hazards. Students will use geospatial and time series data to assess the comparative risks of several hazards at a location that is significant to them (e.g., hometown, site of personal/historical importance). We will combine forecasting effectiveness with vulnerability assessments to strategize ways of proactively mitigating risk. This course is in the Sediments and Life group for the Geosciences major. [ more ]

ENVI 273Politics without Humans?

Last offered Fall 2019

Are human beings the only beings who belong in politics? And is political involvement a unique or defining aspect of what it means to be human? Such questions are increasingly complex as the boundaries of "the human" become blurred by the rise of artificial intelligence, robotics, and brain implants: shifting attitudes towards both animal and human bodies; and the automation of economic and military decisions (buy! sell! attack! retreat!) that used to be the prerogative of human actors. How do visions of politics without humans and humans without politics impact our thinking about longstanding questions of freedom, power, and right? Can and should the link between humans and politics survive in an age in which "posthuman" or "transhuman" entities become central characters in the drama of politics? This class will consider these questions through readings, films and artifacts that bring political theory into conversation with science fiction, popular literature on the so-called "singularity" (the merger of humans with computers), science and technology studies, evolutionary anthropology, "new materialist" philosophy, and feminist theory. [ more ]

ENVI 283Dirty Politics: Regulating Hazardous Chemicals and Wastes

Last offered Fall 2018

Since consumers were first introduced to the promise of "better living through chemistry," society has had to wrestle with the impacts, often far removed in place and time, resulting from a rapid proliferation of hazardous chemicals and wastes. Policy responses, be they at the local, national or global scale, are often limited to reactionary efforts to counter releases into the environment, are constrained by the prevalent use of the technologies in question, and further bring to the fore key challenges of environmental justice and risk management. How then are we to regulate DDT without adversely affecting our fight against mosquito-borne malaria? How might we preserve the ozone layer while still maintaining the benefits of food preservation through refrigeration? How can we reap the benefits of the electronic age without condoning the steady flow of electronic waste affecting workers' health and environments in developing countries? Emphasis will be placed on understanding the politics that bring about, and allow us to address, these problems.We will be examining in particular novel policy responses, including the US' revised legislation on chemicals passed in 2016 and citizen science initiatives such as those that brought attention to the crisis of lead-contaminated water in Flint, MI. [ more ]

Taught by: Pia Kohler

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ENVI 285Writing About Science and Nature

Last offered Spring 2016

Over the last few decades, the nature of nature has changed and so, necessarily, has nature writing. In this course we will read essays and articles by some of the most innovative science and nature writers working today. Students will also produce their own work. The class will include workshop sessions and group discussions. There will be frequent short exercises and a long final project. [ more ]

ENVI 287The Dynamics of Globalization: Society, Religion and the Environment

Last offered Spring 2010

This course offers a theoretical reflection on the social, cultural and environmental dynamics of globalization and their consequences for the nature and place of religion. Rather than argue for or against globalization, we first examine the nature of this new configuration and its relation to (post)modernity, asking questions such as: What are the cultural and social dynamics of globalization? What are the effects on the nature of the state and the political practices that take place in the global world? What are its environmental consequences? We then shift to examining the role of religion, arguing that its renewed relevance is a function of the socio-cultural transformations that globalization brings about, particularly the loss of community and the increasing atomization of individuals. We conclude by examining some of the perspectives created by the new religious expressions that attempt to respond to this situation, from personal spiritual quests as manifested in interest in Buddhism, ecology or mountain climbing, to various forms of fundamentalism, such as Evangelicalism, the fastest growing religious movement in the Americas, and the most radical forms of Islamicism. Reading list: Harvey, The Condition of Postmodernity; Castells, The Rise of the Network Society; Bauman, Globalization; Kivisto, Multiculturalism in a Global Society; Casanova, Public Religions in the Modern World; Ortner, Life and Death on Mt. Everest; Matthews, Global Cultura/ Individual Identity; Shuck, Mark of the Beast; Roy, Globalized Islam. [ more ]

ENVI 291Religion and the American Environmental Imagination

Last offered Spring 2018

This course examines the relationship between religious and environmental thought in modern America. Exploring a broad range of practices and beliefs, we will examine the religious (and anti-religious) roots of contemporary environmental discourse. Rather than survey the environmental teachings of organized religious groups, our focus throughout will be on ambiguous, eclectic, and fascinating traditions of "eco-spirituality" and popular "nature religion." Where do these traditions come from? What is their relationship to science, to secularism, to politics, and to the search for environmental justice? Starting with the Transcendentalist movement of the 19th century, we will trace a roughly chronological line to the present, taking long detours into several modern religious trends and movements, including the revitalization and contestation of Native American religions, Wicca and neo-pagan ecofeminism, and evangelical Creation Care. Focusing on the writings of activists and radicals from a variety of religious backgrounds, our overarching question throughout the semester is one of the most critical we face in modern environmental thought: what is the relationship between spirituality and the just, sustainable society? [ more ]

ENVI 301Climate Changes (Latin America): Aesthetics, Politics, Science

Last offered Fall 2019

In her 2007 book, In Catastrophic Times: Resisting the Coming Barbarism, philosopher Isabelle Stengers offers a chilling observation: "we are more badly equipped than ever for putting to work the solutions defined as necessary" to avoid the most devastating effects of global warming--the extinction of 25 to 75% of existing species; an increase in sea levels that will drown island nations and coastal cities; the breakdown of agricultural systems, leading to widespread famine; and the recurrence of powerful hurricanes and other so-called "natural" disasters. All of this, as Stengers and others point out, will create human upheaval, conflict and suffering on an unprecedented scale. This senior seminar examines works of literature, art and film that Latin Americans have produced in response to the catastrophic times in which we live. We will discuss the political, economic, and cultural histories that have led to our present moment, including neoliberalism, dictatorship, and the rise and fall of the leftwing Pink Tide. Through works of new and experimental fiction, poetry, film, performance and visual art, we will consider the lives and work of environmental activists, including Berta Cáceres and others who were murdered because of their outspoken opposition to extractive capitalism, examine the struggle for the decolonization of environmental knowledge, an epistemological battle increasingly waged on behalf of all living things, and experience the politics of mourning for the hundreds of thousands of life-forms disappearing from the planet. Cultural texts to be explored throughout the semester may include: La vorágine (José Eustasio Rivera, Colombia, 1924); Distancia de rescate (Samanta Schweblin, Argentina, 2014); Lo que soño Sebastián (Rodrigo Rey Rosa, Guatemala, 1995); Serras da desordem (Andrea Tonacci, Brazil, 2006); Boi Neón (Gabriel Mascaro, Brazil, 2015); American Fork (George Handley, USA, 2018). [ more ]

ENVI 302(F)Environmental Planning Workshop: Community-Based Experience

This interdisciplinary, experiential workshop introduces students to the field of planning through hands-on community projects. Environmental Planning includes a range of disciplines pertaining to the natural and built landscape such as city planning, housing, transportation, energy, open space and recreation, municipal services, ecological design, landscape architecture, neighborhood design, and community development, to list a few. This year, the foci will be issues currently at the forefront of the field: planning for public health and pandemics, racist planning legacies and anti-racist approaches, poverty and affordable housing, climate resilience planning, alternative transportation and transit, and agriculture and food systems. The class is organized into two parts. Part 1 involves reading and discussion of the planning literature: history, theory, policy, ethics, legal framework, and case studies. Labs include GIS mapping, hands-on planning exercises and project development. Part 2 involves project work: tackling an current planning problem in your home community. The includes primary research, conducting interviews with policymakers, stakeholders and residents, site visits, attending meetings, and other activities as demanded by the particular project. The project work draws on students' academic training and extracurricular activities, and applies creative solutions to thorny problems. Labs will be small group work and project work. The course includes several class presentations; students will gain skills in interacting with public officials, interviewing, preparing presentations, public speaking, report-writing, and teamwork. The class culminates in a public presentation. [ more ]

ENVI 303Cultures of Climate Change

Last offered Spring 2019

This course asks why people think and talk about climate change in such very different ways. Climate change is a physical phenomenon that can be observed, quantified, and measured. But it is also an idea, and as such it is subject to the vagaries of cultural interpretation. Despite scientific agreement about its existence and its causes, many people do not see climate change as a serious problem, or as a problem at all. Many others see it as the most serious problem our species has ever faced. What are the sources of this disparity? Why can't we agree about climate change? How does something as complex and confusing as climate change become a "problem" in the first place? This course will explore a broad array of factors, from religion to race, class to colonialism. It will focus especially closely on the communication of scientific knowledge, risk perception, and environmental ethics, and it will apply a range of theories from the social sciences and humanities to a set of concrete case studies. [ more ]

ENVI 304(F)Sacred Custodians: Environmental Conservation in Africa

In this seminar we will explore environmental conservation in Africa. In particular we will look at African ideas, ethics, and approaches to environmental conservation. Are there African ideas, ethics, and activities that are uniquely conservationist in nature? We will explore well-known African leaders to understand what spurred them to become conservationists, how they interpreted and communicated environmental crises. For example, Wangari Maathai is a world-renowned female scientist who established the Green Belt Movement in Kenya. This movement focuses on addressing the problem of de-forestation. Ken Saro-Wiwa was an activist in Nigeria who fought for and alongside local communities against multinational oil corporations. We will examine these and other African conservation practices alongside popular images of environmental crisis that place blame for environmental degradation on Africans. Students will be invited to critically study histories of environmental management on the continent and the emergence, development, and impact of the idea of conservation. We will unpack the rich histories of conservation efforts in Africa, such as resource extraction, game parks, desertification, wildlife and hunting, traditional practices, and climate change. [ more ]

ENVI 307(F)Environmental Law

We rely on environmental laws to make human communities healthier and protect the natural world, while allowing for sustainable economic growth. Yet, despite 40 years of increasingly varied and complex legislation, balancing human needs and environmental quality has never been harder than it is today. Environmental Studies 307 analyzes the transformation of environmental law from fringe enterprise to fundamental feature of modern political, economic and social life. ENVI 307 also addresses the role of community activism in environmental law, from local battles over proposed industrial facilities to national campaigns for improved corporate citizenship. By the completion of the semester, students will understand both the successes and failures of modern environmental law and how these laws are being reinvented, through innovations like pollution credit trading and "green product" certification, to confront globalization, climate change and other emerging threats. [ more ]

ENVI 308Science and Politics in Environmental Decision Making

Last offered Spring 2018

This course explores the relationship between science and politics in environmental decision-making. How do legislators know when a species is endangered and warrants protection? What precautions should be applied in allowing genetically modified foods onto our plates? Can we, and should we, weigh the risks of malaria against the impacts of pesticides used to control those mosquitoes that transmit the disease? How has the global community come together to understand the risks from global climate change, and how has this understanding shaped our policy responses? What are some of the limits of science in shaping policy outcomes? In addressing these and other questions, we will pay particular attention to how power relations and existing institutions shape what knowledge, and whose knowledge, is taken on board in decision-making, be it at the local, national or global level. We will delve into how these dynamics shape policy outcomes and we will also examine novel approaches for incorporating the knowledge of traditionally disempowered groups, including indigenous and local communities. [ more ]

Taught by: Pia Kohler

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ENVI 311(S)Tropical Ecologies: Francophone Caribbean Literature and the Environment

The lushness of the mangroves, the flora and fauna of tropical landscapes, the intricacy of the rhizome, the flow of great rivers, the crashing waves of the Atlantic, the heights of mountainous lands, and expanse of the plateau--the natural world is an important site of Caribbean art in general and, more specifically, the francophone Caribbean novel of the 20th and 21st centuries. Applying eco-criticism to the field of francophone Caribbean literature, the goal of this class is to examine the ways that fiction explores the relationship between human activity and the environment. How does the novel inhabit Caribbean ecologies and topographies? How does it represent nature? In what ways do Caribbean texts meditate on nature and culture together or against one another? As the earthquake in Haiti demonstrated in 2010 with calamitous force, and the cycles of Caribbean hurricanes have shown over the years, natural disaster is also a political crisis. In view of this, we will also consider the legacies of slavery and colonialism in terms of class, gender and race politics. This investigation of the dynamics of natural and cultural phenomena will also have a theoretical frame rooted in critical texts of Caribbean of literary and political movements such as Indigenisme, Négritude, and Créolité. Conducted in French. [ more ]

Taught by: Regine M Jean-Charles

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ENVI 312Communities and Ecosystems

Last offered Fall 2019

An advanced ecology course that examines how species interact with each other and their environment and how communities are assembled. This course emphasizes phenomena that emerge in complex ecological systems, building on the fundamental concepts of population biology, community ecology, and ecosystem science. This foundation will be used to understand specific topics relevant to conservation including invasibility and the functional significance of diversity for ecosystem stability and processes. Lectures and labs will explore how to characterize the emergent properties of communities and ecosystems, and how theoretical, comparative, and experimental approaches are used to understand their structure and function. The lab component of this course will emphasize hypothesis-oriented field experiments as well as "big-data" analyses using existing data sets.The laboratory component of the course will culminate with a self-designed independent or group project. [ more ]

ENVI 313Chicago

Last offered Spring 2018

"The city of big shoulders has plenty of room for diversity," reads the official visitor's website for the City of Chicago. Focusing on this claim, this course asks students to think critically about what kind room has been made for diversity--social, spatial, and ideological. Additionally we examine the ways in which diverse social actors have shouldered their way into the imagined and physical landscape of the city. Working with ethnography, history, literature, critical essays, and popular culture, we will explore the material and discursive constructions of Chi-Town and urban life among its residents. Appreciating these constructions we also consider how Chicago has served as a key site for understandings of urbanity within a broader national and global context. [ more ]

Taught by: Mérida Rúa

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ENVI 314(F)Nature in Crisis: The Classification Craze and The Rise of Museums

This course examines how understandings of nature evolved dramatically (and at times unsettlingly) from the 17th through the early 20th centuries and how this instability prompted a desire to classify and control natural phenomena. To analyze these issues, we will likewise consider the rise of modern museums, as well as the accompanying acts of classification and curation. We will consider how literary and philosophical texts from the aforementioned time periods depict nature, how real-world interactions with nature led to the creation of (illustrated) taxonomies, how colonization inflected notions of the natural world and also museum exhibits, and finally, how the cabinet of curiosities and later, the museum, provided a space in which to display and analyze nature's more unusual treasures. As part of our explorations, we will build a virtual exhibit of our own to reflect our understanding of nature today and our engagement with concepts of nature from previous eras. Conducted in French. Counts as an Envi Humanities Elective for the Envi Concentration. [ more ]

ENVI 315Ecocriticism

Last offered Spring 2020

How does the human imagination encounter its environment? This overarching question is of particular importance now, as the humanities struggle to address the ecological crises of our time. We¿ll read selections from the long tradition of environmentally-minded literary works in order to historicize concepts of nature and wilderness, as well as from more recent theoretical and creative writing that reflects an increasing awareness of climate change, toxic waste and pollution, habitat loss and species extinction, population expansion, and other forms of environmental catastrophe. Finally, we will explore via our own writing the ethical and aesthetic imperative to find ways of imagining this ever-changing relation between the imagination and the environment. [ more ]

ENVI 318California: Myths, Peoples, Places

Last offered Fall 2016

Crosslisting Between Paradise and Hell, between environmental disaster and agricultural wonderland, between Reagan and Berkeley, between a land of all nations and a land of multiracial enmity, a diversity of myths have been inscribed onto and pursued within the space we call California. How did certain narratives of California come to be, who has imagined California in certain ways, and why? What is the relationship between certain myths, the peoples who have imagined them, and the other peoples who have shared California dreams? In this course, we will examine some of the myths that surround California by looking at a few specific moments of interaction between the peoples who have come to make California home and the specific places in which they have interacted with each other. Of special interest will be imaginations of the Spanish missions, the Gold Rush, agricultural California, wilderness California, California as "sprawling multicultural dystopia," and California as "west of the west." [ more ]

ENVI 321(F)Born to be Wild: Rethinking Animals in Pre-modern and Modern Texts

In the past few months, images of dolphins appearing in the Venetian canals, and wild animals roaming eerie looking post-apocalyptic deserted streets have gone viral. The majority of these images have proven to be fake, however their popularity was witness to people's hope that we can "reset" the environment and a yearning to reframe animals' positionality vis-à-vis their habitats and humans. Using critical lenses from ecocriticism and animal studies, we will be exploring texts from non-Western traditions in which animals figure strongly from pre-modern times to the age of the Anthropocene. The focus will be on Arabic, Persian and Turkish texts all in translation. The course will be traversing several genres and texts from Pre-Islamic poetry, the Quran, the 10th century Ikhwan as-Safa's epistle The Case of Animals versus Man Before the King of the Jinn, the fables of Kalila and Dimna, Farid ed-Din 'Attar's Conference of Birds, travelogues, paintings, contemporary film till we reach recent fiction with cyborgs and drones. Throughout the course, we will be examining themes such as diverse conceptualizations of what it means to be an "animal", what constitutes' animal agency and animal subjectivity irrespective of humans and their often utilitarian lens. We will do this by investigating how animals through these texts have been represented, imagined and reconfigured whether allegorically or otherwise as communities and in relation to humans and the environment and the implications of that. Finally, we will explore what a poetics of animal studies in these cultural and literary traditions could look like. The course will consist of multiple forms of evaluation like participation, Glow posts, essays, experiential reflections and creative tasks. [ more ]

ENVI 322(F)Waste and Value

What is trash and what is treasure? In what ways does value depend upon and necessitate waste, and how is the dialectic between the two inflected by culture? When we 'throw away' things at Williams College, where exactly do they go, and who handles them 'down the line'? What are the local and global economies of waste in which we are all embedded and how are they structured by class, race, caste, gender and nation? In this seminar we critically examine the production of waste - both as material and as category - and its role in the production of value, meaning, hierarchy and the environment. Readings include ethnographic accounts of sanitation labor and social hierarchy; studies of the political and environmental consequences of systems of waste management in the colonial period and the present; and theoretical inquiries into the relation between filth and culture, including work by Mary Douglas, Dipesh Chakrabarty and Karl Marx. Geographically the foci are South Asia, Japan, and the United States. There is also a fieldwork component to the course. In (safe, socially distant) fieldtrips we follow the waste streams flowing out of Williams - to an incinerator, a sewage treatment plant, recycling and composting facilities and other sites - and students individually explore the everyday social life of waste in our communities. [ more ]

ENVI 323(F)World's End: Literary Ecologies of the Limit

Consciousness of the world's finiteness in a time of environmental degradation and headlong global capitalism prompts restraint, a harboring of resources. But beyond the economic logic of conservation and expenditure, might imagining the world from the vantage point of its limit provoke a more profound rethinking of ourselves and the things of the world? Does it change what it means to possess, or even what an experience of the world is? Does it change human relationship? This course explores these questions in part by reaching back to the early modern period, when the boundedness of nations and worlds first comes to view in a meaningful way. But the course will have a long arc, from Shakespeare to Sinha's Animal's People. Primary works will include: Shakespeare, As You Like It and King Lear; Marvell; Ovid, Metamorphosis; Browne, Urn Burial; Wordsworth; McCarthy, The Road; Atwood; Alice Oswald; photography (Struth, Hutte); painting (Titian), and video installations (Pipilotti Rist). Theoretical texts include: Smith, Against Ecological Sovereignty; Wood, Reoccupy Earth; Agamben, The Time that Remains; Heidegger, "Question Concerning Technology"; Latour, "An Inquiry into Modes of Existence"; Nancy, After Fukushima; Derrida, The animal that therefore I am and Beast and the Sovereign. [ more ]

ENVI 324Corals and Sea Level

Last offered Spring 2019

In coastal communities, increasing flood damage from storm surges and chronic inundation by seawater are already happening as a result of sea level rise. How do we know what contributes to the observed change in sea level in the last century? What does the geological record teach us about what controls the natural variation in sea level on short and long timescales? How can we use this information to separate anthropogenic effects from natural change in modern systems? And how does this inform us on what to expect through the 21st century and beyond? In this course, we will examine how sea level is reconstructed using geological archives and how coral-based sea level data led to breakthroughs in our understanding of the long-term evolution of the ocean and climate, the controls in the timing of ice age cycles, the singularity of modern climate change, and how high the future seas will rise. During Spring Break, the class will travel to Barbados, a renowned locality for Quaternary sea level reconstruction, to observe modern and ancient reefs, and collect samples that will be the basis of individual or group projects in the second half of the semester. Participation in the Spring Break trip is not required for successful completion of the course, but course enrollment is necessary to attend the trip. This course is in the Oceans and Climate group for the Geosciences major. [ more ]

ENVI 329Our Planet's Plastic Plight

Last offered Spring 2019

#stopsucking, #gotopless, #foodinthenude: these rallying calls to #rethinkplastic and ban plastic straws, coffee cups, and excessive food packaging are just the latest consumer-driven campaigns to combat the scourge of plastic proliferation. Indeed, over the past century, plastic has become ubiquitous in our societies. Durability, affordability and versatility, the very characteristics that explain this success, have heightened the pollution challenge we face today. Yet, we also rely on plastic for a variety of life-saving devices and implements. In this course, we will examine the chemistry and history of plastic and understand how its uses have impacted diverse systems including our oceans. As we undertake this semester-long lifecycle analysis of plastic in our daily lives, we will explore how additives, often toxic, complicate efforts to recycle plastic goods. We will also study international flows of this material, notably following China's decision in 2017 to constrain its imports of plastics for recycling. Finally, we will evaluate novel efforts to regulate plastic from the local to the global scale. [ more ]

Taught by: Pia Kohler

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ENVI 339(F)Conservation Biology

This course examines the application of population genetics, population ecology, community ecology, and systematics to the conservation of biological diversity. The overarching theme of the course is on the role of stochastic processes for small populations. Lecture/discussion topics will include extinction, the genetics of small populations, metapopulations, and importantly, conservation strategies. Labs will include a mixture of computer and lab projects. [ more ]

ENVI 341Toxicology and Cancer

Last offered Spring 2018

What is a poison and what makes it poisonous? Paracelcus commented in 1537: "What is not a poison? All things are poisons (and nothing is without poison). The dose alone keeps a thing from being a poison." Is the picture really this bleak; is modern technology-based society truly swimming in a sea of toxic materials? How are the nature and severity of toxicity established, measured and expressed? Do all toxic materials exert their effect in the same manner, or can materials be poisonous in a variety of different ways? Are the safety levels set by regulatory agencies low enough for a range of common toxic materials, such as mercury, lead, and certain pesticides? How are poisons metabolized and how do they lead to the development of cancer? What is cancer and what does it take to cause it? What biochemical defense mechanisms exist to counteract the effects of poisons?
This course attempts to answer these questions by surveying the fundamentals of modern chemical toxicology and the induction and progression of cancer. Topics will range from description and quantitation of the toxic response, including risk assessment, to the basic mechanisms underlying toxicity, mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, and DNA repair.
[ more ]

Taught by: David Richardson

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ENVI 342The Nature of Gardens: From Eden to the High Line

Last offered Fall 2019

The garden, since time immemorial, has been the touchstone for humans' interactions with the environment. The relationships between humans and their environments have been so intimate that the creation and origins mythologies of many cultures are set in the context of a garden or paradise. The garden is the environment in which humans have been created, and reciprocally gardens, by definition are the product of human design and environmental manipulation. This seminar examines the interactions between humans and gardens from the perspectives of creation mythologies, the origins of domestication of plants, the cultural expression and design of gardens, the historical exchange of cultivated plants, and evolution of garden design, and the interface of gardens and human biology. Each student will present a seminar based either on their own major interest, an historical, or garden design perspective. One all-day field trip will be scheduled for sometime during the semester. [ more ]

Taught by: Henry Art

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ENVI 346Environmental Psychology

Last offered Spring 2020

This is a course in social psychology as it pertains to the natural environment. We will consider how the environment influences aspects of human psychology (e.g., the psychological implications of humans' disconnect with nature), as well as how human psychology influences the environment (e.g., why some people engage in environmentally destructive behaviors despite holding proenvironmental attitudes). At the core of this course is an attempt to examine various ways in which research and theory in social psychology can contribute insights to understanding (and encouraging) environmentally responsible behavior and sustainable practices, both here at Williams and globally. Because human choice and behavior play such an important role in environmental problems, a consideration of human psychology may therefore be an important part of the solution. [ more ]

Taught by: TBA

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ENVI 347Big Game: Adventure, Empire, Ecology

Last offered Spring 2020

Big Game: Adventure, Empire, Ecology asks how the era of imperial expansion and the study of "natural history" leads into our contemporary ecological crisis. We will begin with readings of influential colonial travel and adventure narratives like Robinson Crusoe, the captivity narrative of Mary Rowlandson, sections of Darwin and Captain Cook's travel journals, and in-class work with archival materials like the Indian Botanical Survey Flora and the photographs of Subhankar Banerjee. In the first weeks, we will consider how the aesthetics of adventure circulated throughout the British empire in both the East Indies and India, and ramifies elsewhere in the Dutch, French, Spanish, Portuguese and Belgian holdings. We will conclude with a suite of readings through which we will attempt to locate a productive intersection between ecocriticism and postcolonial studies, drawing together sensationalist disaster journalism with environmental activism emerging from the Global South. This course will be especially of interest to students in English, Comparative Literature, and Environmental Studies. [ more ]

Taught by: TBA

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ENVI 348Beyond Cli-Fi: Climate Change Histories & the Arts of Resilience

Last offered Spring 2020

This interdisciplinary environmental humanities seminar begins with the premise that our present climate crisis is a political project of globalization propelled by capitalism and its cultural logic. Causes and consequences of climate change can only be understood by examining the historical trajectories of carbon-based economic, political, and cultural systems since the 19th century. We trace the intellectual genealogy of modern climate science, consider the politics of indigenous knowledge as related to extractivism, and examine literary and artistic engagements with the natural world. We pay particular attention to the narrative strategies that scientists and policymakers use to talk about climate, and we develop creative critiques of the dominant discourses. We use historical and cultural analysis to study social movement strategy and tactics among advocates for climate mitigation, adaptation, and resilience. We begin and end with creative responses to climate crisis, always asking: How can we move beyond dystopia and defeatism? How might history inform social movements for climate resilience? How can the arts, theater, and literary production articulate a new politics of survival? What narrative forms enable and inspire climate action? [ more ]

ENVI 351Marine Policy

Last offered Spring 2020

This seminar considers contemporary issues in our relationship with our ocean and marine environment and the critical roles our oceans and coasts play in our Nation's environmental sustainability, and ocean and coastal climate resiliency and stability. By analyzing case and statutory law and policies that relate to our rich and diverse coastal and marine environment, we critically examine the many conflict of use issues present in the coastal and marine environment. The course examines coastal zone management, climate change, fisheries, environmental justice, ocean and coastal pollution, marine biodiversity and admiralty, through the lens of coastal and ocean governance and policy-making. Semester-long independent research engages students with ocean and coastal stakeholders to develop policy strategies and solutions to contemporary issues impacting America's coastlines and oceans. [ more ]

ENVI 352After Nature: Writing About Science and The Environment

Last offered Spring 2018

Over the last few decades, the nature of nature has changed and so, by necessity, has nature writing. In this course we will read some of the classic works of nature writing as well as essays and articles by contemporary authors. The emphasis will be on producing our own work. The class will include workshop sessions and group discussions. There will be frequent short exercises and a long final project. [ more ]

Taught by: Elizabeth Kolbert

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ENVI 364(F)Instrumental Methods of Analysis

Instrumental methods of analysis provide scientists with different lenses to observe and elucidate fundamental chemical phenomena and to measure parameters and properties at the atomic, molecular, and bulk scales. This course introduces a framework for learning about a variety of instrumental techniques that typically include chromatography, mass spectrometry, thermal methods, atomic and molecular absorption and emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and optical and electron microscopies. Lectures will cover the theory and uses of these techniques. By exploring the primary literature and review articles we will discuss recent advances in instrumental methods that address today's analytical questions. The theoretical knowledge will be complemented by hands-on use of our research instruments to study molecules and materials of interest. The skills learned are useful in a wide variety of scientific areas and will prepare you well for research endeavors. [ more ]

ENVI 368Technology and Modern Society

Last offered Fall 2017

With widespread use of new social media, controversial developments in such bio-technical practices as the cloning of mammals, rapid advances in various forms of telecommunication, and the increasing sophistication of technological weaponry in the military, the triumph of technology remains a defining feature of modern life. For the most part, modern humans remain unflinchingly confident in the possibilities technology holds for continuing to improve the human condition. Indisputably, technology has benefited human life in innumerable ways. However, as with other features of modernity, technology has also had significant, albeit largely unanticipated, social consequences. Working within a sociological paradigm, this course will focus on the less often examined latent functions of technology in modern society. It will consider, for example, the social effects of technology on community life, on privacy, and on how people learn, think, understand the world, communicate, and organize themselves. The course will also examine the effects of technology on medicine, education, criminal law, and agriculture and will consider such counter-cultural reactions to technology as the Luddite movement in early nineteenth century England, Amish agrarian practices, and the CSA (community supported agriculture) movement. [ more ]

ENVI 373(F)Environmental Organic Chemistry

This course introduces students to the methods used to assess the risks posed by organic chemicals to human, animal, and ecosystem health. Our goal is to develop a quantitative understanding for how specific features of organic molecular structure directly dictate a given molecule's environmental fate. We will begin by using thermodynamic principles to estimate the salient physiochemical properties of molecules (e.g., vapor pressure, solubility, charging behavior, etc.) that impact the distribution, or partitioning, of organic chemicals between air, water, soils, and biota. Then, using quantitative structure activity relationships, we will predict the degradation kinetics resulting from natural nucleophilic, photochemical, and biological processes that determine chemical lifetime in the environment. [ more ]

ENVI 376(F)Economics of Environmental Behavior

A community maintains a fishery; a firm decides whether to get a green certification; you choose to fly home or stay here for spring break: behaviors of people and firms determine our impact on the environment. We'll use economics to model environmental behavior and to consider how policies can help or hurt the environment. Topics we'll study include: voluntary conservation, social norms and nudges, firm responses to mandatory and voluntary rules, and boycotts and divestment. [ more ]

ENVI 378Nature/Writing

Last offered Fall 2019

What do we mean by "nature"? How do we understand the relationships between "nature" and "culture"? In this course we will examine how various American writers have attempted to render conceptions of "nature" in literary form. We will compare treatments of various kinds of natural environments and trace the philosophical and stylistic traditions within the nature writing genre. The authors to be considered include Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, William Faulkner, Annie Dillard, Barry Lopez, Ursula LeGuin, and Wendell Berry. [ more ]

ENVI 386Environmental and Natural Resource Policy

Last offered Spring 2016

People all over the world depend on the environment and natural resources in countless ways, but human activities can degrade these resources in ways that reduce our wellbeing and that of future generations. In this class, we will use economics to reflect on how this harm comes about and how policy can help. The focus will be international, including developed and developing countries, and applied, building from examples of actual problems and policies. Economics brings useful tools to these conversations because we think carefully about modeling incentives, tradeoffs, and the (sometimes unexpected) consequences of our actions, and because of the empirical analysis on which modern economics relies. This class will primarily use microeconomics to understand how individuals, firms, and governments make decisions that affect the environment and resources, though some topics, like sustainable use of resources across generations and "green growth" measures, will be more macroeconomic in nature. Topics include pollution, climate change, cost benefit analysis, different ways of regulating environmental damage, renewable resources (e.g., forests) and nonrenewable resources (e.g., oil, land), the "natural resource curse," energy, and the relationship between economic growth and environmental quality. Throughout, we will think not only about efficiency of policies, but also about equity and justice, and about their practical applicability in contexts including developing countries. [ more ]

ENVI 387(F)Economics of Climate Change

This course introduces the economic view of climate change, including both theory and empirical evidence. Given the substantial changes implied by the current stock of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere, we will begin by looking at impacts on agriculture, health, income, and migration. We will consider the distribution of climate damages across poor and wealthy people, both within and across countries. Next we will study adaptation, including capital investments and behavioral changes. We will examine the sources of climate change, especially electricity generation and transportation, and think about optimal policies. What is the socially optimal amount of climate change? Why have countries had such a hard time agreeing on GHG emissions reductions, and how might we overcome such difficulties? We will consider the growing body of evidence from attempts to regulate GHGs, including China's cap-and-trade programs, the EU ETS, and US state policies. Throughout the course we will discuss the limits of the economic approach, pointing out normative questions on which economic theory provides little guidance. [ more ]

ENVI 388Urbanization and Development

Last offered Spring 2014

At current rates of growth, the combined population of urban areas in developing countries will double in the next 30 years. The land area devoted to urban use is expected to double even more quickly. The costs of providing housing and infrastructure to accommodate this growth are enormous, but the costs of failing to accommodate urban development may be even larger. The decisions made in response to these challenges will affect the economic performance of these countries and the health and welfare of the urban residents. By affecting global patterns of energy use, these decisions will have broader impacts on the entire planet. This course will focus on these challenges. What are the economic forces that drive the process of urbanization, and how does the level of urbanization affect economic development? How are policies towards housing, transportation, public finance and development affected by urbanization? What policy choices are available, and which are most likely to succeed in dealing with the challenges of urban growth? [ more ]

ENVI 390(S)The Nature of Nature

"Nature" is one of the commonest words in English. And yet what does it signify? Is it primarily descriptive (all living things), or normative ("natural" foods, "human nature")? This course will consider the richly incoherent ways we think about the living world, paying attention to the difficulty of narrating processes that are often too big, too small, too quick or too slow for direct human apprehension. We'll also explore the ways popular nature writing mingles scientific reporting with implicit judgments about human identity, morality, and social organization. Writers studied will include Elizabeth Kolbert, N. Scott Momaday and Charles Darwin. We'll also consider the technological mediations of nature in documentaries by David Attenborough and Lynette Wallworth, among others. [ more ]

ENVI 397(F)Independent Study of Environmental Problems

Individuals or groups of students may undertake a study of a particular environmental problem. The project may involve either pure or applied research, policy analysis, laboratory or field studies, or may be a creative writing or photography project dealing with the environment. A variety of nearby sites are available for the study of natural systems. Ongoing projects in the College-owned Hopkins Forest include ecological studies, animal behavior, and acid rain effects on soils, plants, and animals. Students may also choose to work on local, national, or international policy or planning issues, and opportunities to work with town and regional planning officials are available. Projects are unrestricted as to disciplinary focus. Students should consult with faculty well before the start of the semester in which they plan to carry out their project. [ more ]

ENVI 398(S)Independent Study of Environmental Problems

Individuals or groups of students may undertake a study of a particular environmental problem. The project may involve either pure or applied research, policy analysis, laboratory or field studies, or may be a creative writing or photography project dealing with the environment. A variety of nearby sites are available for the study of natural systems. Ongoing projects in the College-owned Hopkins Forest include ecological studies, animal behavior, and acid rain effects on soils, plants, and animals. Students may also choose to work on local, national, or international policy or planning issues, and opportunities to work with town and regional planning officials are available. Projects are unrestricted as to disciplinary focus. Students should consult with faculty well before the start of the semester in which they plan to carry out their project. [ more ]

ENVI 404Coastal Processes and Geomorphology

Last offered Spring 2020

Can people live safely along the coast? Recent events like SuperStorm Sandy and the Tohoku Tsunami have shown us how the ocean can rise up suddenly and wreak havoc on our lives and coastal infrastructure. Only educated geoscientists can evaluate the risks and define informed strategies to prevent future coastal catastrophes. Currently almost half the global population lives within 100 km of the coast, with a large percent of those living in densely populated cities (e.g., New York, New Orleans, Los Angeles, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Cape Town, Sydney, Mumbai). Despite the growing risks and challenges associated with climate change and rising sea levels, the coastal population continues to grow rapidly. To help ensure these growing populations can live safely along the coast requires a detailed understanding of the processes that shape the coastal zone. These processes act across a variety of scales, from deep-time geologic processes that dictate coastal shape and structure, to decadal-scale processes that determine shoreline position and evolution, to weekly and daily processes such as storms and tides. This course will provide an in-depth look at the forces--wind, waves, storms, and people--that shape the coastal zone, as well as the geologic formations--sandy beaches, rocky cliffs, barrier islands, deltas, and coral reefs--that are acted upon and resist these forces. Coastal dynamics are strongly affected by human interventions, such as seawalls, dredged channels, and sand dune removal, as well as by sea level rise and changes in storm frequency and magnitude associated with climate change. Finally, the course will provide students with a perspective on how the U.S. seeks to manage its coastal zone, focusing on sea level rise and coastal development. This class will include a quantitative lab that will use MATLAB software to model and evaluate various coastal processes. Students will gain a basic understanding of MATLAB functionality, and will be asked to independently apply what they have learned to various data sets provided by the instructor. [ more ]

ENVI 405Geochemistry: Understanding Earth's Environment

Last offered Fall 2017

Rocks, water, air, life: what comprises these interconnected components of the Earth system? How do they interact today, and how did these interactions differ in the past? In this course we will study how chemical elements are distributed in the Earth, cycle through the Earth system, and act together to produce a planet that is habitable. As Earth's landscapes and oceans, and the life they harbor, have evolved through time, they have left an imprint in the geological record that we can read using geochemical tools such as molecular fossils, elemental ratios, and stable and radioactive isotopes. Topics include the synthesis of elements in stars, the formation and differentiation of planet Earth; radiometric dating; the major constituents of the atmosphere, rain, rocks, rivers and the ocean; how they're linked by chemical weathering and biological activity; and reconstruction of past environments. Students will explore these topics through lecture; reading and discussing articles from the scientific literature; and collecting, analyzing and interpreting data from environmental samples. [ more ]

ENVI 410(S)The Cryosphere

The Earth's climate system is often described in terms of its spheres, including the atmosphere, biosphere, lithosphere, oceans, and the cryosphere. The cryosphere is the naturally occurring ice on Earth in all its many forms: snow, glaciers, ice sheets, sea ice, frozen lakes and rivers, and permafrost (frozen soil). These parts of the climate system may seem remote, but have implications for climate and weather around the world; changes in Arctic sea ice cover accelerate climate change in the north, resulting in the increased frequency of Polar Vortex events that send frigid temperatures down as far as the southern US. Melting glaciers and ice sheets have already contributed to sea level rise, and are projected to do so even more in the future. This course will explore the cryosphere, including snow, sea ice, permafrost, and glaciers through lectures, hands-on and data analysis labs, reading journal articles, and a final project. As a 400-level seminar, this capstone course is intended to build on and extend knowledge and skills students have developed during previous courses in the major. [ more ]

ENVI 412(S)Senior Seminar: Perspectives on Environmental Studies

The Environmental Studies and Maritime Studies programs provide students with an opportunity to explore the myriad ways that humans interact with diverse environments at scales ranging from local to global. The capstone course for Environmental Studies and Maritime Studies, this seminar brings together students who have specialized in the humanities, social studies and the sciences to exchange ideas across these disciplines. Over the course of the seminar, students will develop a sustained independent research project on a topic of their choice, and they will have opportunities throughout the semester to meet with guest speakers to discuss environmental work outside the academy. [ more ]

Taught by: TBA

Catalog details

ENVI 419Going to Ground: Considering Earth in the Arts of Africa

Last offered Fall 2015

Drawing its inspiration from the landmark exhibition Earth Matters: Land as Material and Metaphor in the Arts of Africa (National Museum of African Art, 2013), this seminar explores how earth has been conceptualized and integrated into African artistic thought as material, metaphor, geography, environment, and intervention, and how this interpretive flexibility has allowed it to become a symbol of power and presence in African art-making from prehistory to the present. The seminar will also focus on the ways in which earth has been used in contemporary art towards addressing the growing problems of pollution, unsustainable development, and the widespread depletion of earth-based natural resources in Africa. Over the course of this seminar, students will develop a knowledge base of earth-related issues that have been addressed in African artistic production, and engage with various cross-disciplinary methodologies to critically analyze the conceptual and aesthetic strategies deployed in these works. Students will also have the opportunity to interact with specialists from diverse disciplines and fields towards fleshing out their knowledge base. [ more ]

ENVI 420(F)Architecture and Sustainability in a Global World

What does it mean to create a sustainable built environment? What do such environments look like? Do they look the same for different people across different times and spaces? This course takes these questions as starting points in exploring the concept of architectural sustainability, defined as "minimizing the negative impact of built form on the surrounding landscape," and how this concept can be interpreted not only from an environmental point of view, but from cultural, political, and social perspectives as well. Over the course of the class, students will explore different conceptualizations of sustainability and how these conceptualizations take form in built environments in response to the cultural identities, political agendas, social norms, gender roles, and religious values circulating in society at any given moment. In recognizing the relationship between the way things are constructed (technique of assembly, technology, materials, process) and the deeper meanings behind the structural languages deployed, students will come to understand sustainability as a fundamentally context-specific ideal, and its manifestation within the architectural environment as a mode of producing dialogues about the anticipated futures of both cultural and architectural worlds. [ more ]

ENVI 421Latinx Ecologies

Last offered Spring 2020

An August 2015 Latino Decisions poll found that Latinxs, more than other ethnic groups in the U.S.A., are deeply concerned about climate change and the "environment". How and why might some Latinxs be disproportionately impacted by climate change? How have a few distinct Latinx theorists and activists imagined and constructed ecology? How are struggles for environmental justice related to broader Latinx concerns with and constructions of place? This seminar will examine a few moments in distinct Latinx histories and geographies such as California migrant farmworkers and the struggle over pesticides, urban movements over waste management such as the Young Lords' garbage offensive, food justice movements and urban gardening, as well as literary and theological representations of affective and sacred ecologies such as Helena María Viramontes' Their Dogs Came With Them and Ecuadoran-U.S. ecofeminist Jeanette Rodríguez's theological texts. Evaluation will be based on class participation, presentations, annotated bibliography, short writing assignments, writing workshop participation, and a final 20-page research paper. [ more ]

ENVI 422Ecology of Sustainable Agriculture

Last offered Fall 2018

A seminar/field course investigating patterns, processes, and concepts of stability in human-dominated, food production ecosystems. As a capstone course, the course will draw upon the experiences that students have had in biology and environmental studies courses. Topics will include: the relationships among diversity, ecosystem function, sustainability, resilience, and stability of food production, distribution systems, nutrient pools and processing in human dominated ecosystems. Two extensive field trips will be taken to agricultural operations in the region. Each student will present a seminar on a topic requiring extensive reading of primary resources and is responsible for leading the discussion that ensues. Reading question paper assignments will be due prior to the seminar. Criticism paper assignments will be made at approximately bi-weekly intervals and due two days after the seminar to which they relate. [ more ]

Taught by: TBA

Catalog details

ENVI 423Global Change Ecology

Last offered Fall 2019

Plants and animals are increasingly faced with rapid environmental change driven by human activities across the globe. How do they cope with challenges imposed by climate change, altered nutrient cycling, biological invasions, and increased urbanization? What are the impacts of organismal responses at the population and community level? This course uses an integrative approach to understand the impacts of global change at multiple levels of biological organization in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. We examine how global-scale environmental changes affect the distribution and abundance of species and alter community organization. We also consider the physiological and behavioural mechanisms underlying species responses and the role of acclimation versus adaptation in coping with rapid environmental change. Finally, we learn the analytical tools used to predict future responses to global change. Class discussions will focus on readings drawn from the primary literature. [ more ]

ENVI 430(F, S)Race, Identity, Nature

From 18th-century claims that climate determined character to the 21st-century proliferation of DNA tests underwriting claims to Indigenous ancestry, race, colonialism, identity, and "nature" operate as interconnected terrains of power. Anchored in the contexts of U.S. colonialisms, racialization, and accumulation, this course aims to expose students to the cultural politics of "nature" as a way of "doing" American Studies. Specifically, this course investigates formations of and struggles against U.S. colonialisms, racialization, and accumulation via the many symbolic and material iterations, negotiations, and contestations of the contingent relations between and among human and non-human natures. Organized around a significant research paper and weekly written responses, this course ultimately aims to foster students' critical writing, reading, analytical thinking, and comparative inquiry skills across such contexts and sites of contestation, and across texts of different genres and media. We will work with a wide range of primary sources, including published fiction and poetry, legal documents, newspaper articles, speeches, recorded songs, and films, photos, paintings and other visual culture. By the end of this course, students should be able to describe the historical foundations of dominant ideas, attitudes, and practices toward non-human natures, as well as analyze how ideas of "nature" mediate the ways in which colonial, racial, gender, and sexual categories and structures inform and are (re)produced by U.S. institutions and in public areas such as the law, public policy, and property. Finally, students should be able to interpret how racialized and colonized peoples' visions, representations, and practices of liberation with regard to relations with non-human natures and the materiality of land precede, contend with, and exceed normative political, economic, and social categories of governance and systems of dispossession and exploitation. [ more ]

ENVI 436(S)Demigods: Nature, social theory, and visual imagination in art and literature, ancient to modern

Horse-men, cat-women, goat-men, tree-women, man-bulls, fish-girls, snake-people--cross-species compound creatures are everywhere in ancient Greek and Roman art, poetry, and culture. The conceptual or cognitive value of those "demigods" has changed over time. In art, demigods have frequently been reduced to the status of decoration, and in literature, they have become generic markers of fantasy. But they are hardly without meaning. Embodied in satyrs, centaurs, nymphs, and other demigods is a vision of an alternative evolutionary and cultural history. In it, humans and animals live together. The distinction between nature and culture is not meaningful. Male and female are equal. The industrial revolution never happens. This course traces the history of demigods from its origins in ancient Greek art and poetry until today. We pay special attention to three points: the relationship between mythology of demigods and ancient political theory about primitive life; evolving conceptions of nature, the origin of species, and the environment; and the capacity of the visual arts to create mythology that has a limited literary counterpart. The first half of the course examines the origins and character of the demigods, in works of ancient art, e.g. the François vase and the Parthenon, as well as ancient texts, including Hesiod's Theogony and Ovid's Metamorphoses. We examine relevant cultural practices, intellectual history, and conceptions of nature, in texts such as Euripides' Bakchai, Plato's Phaidros, and Lucretius' De rerum natura. We will consider in detail ancient theories of the origins of species as well as the relationship between nature and human culture. The second half of the course investigates the post-classical survival of demigods. We consider the "rediscovery" of demigods in the work of Renaissance artists such as Botticelli, Michelangelo, Dürer, and Titian, and the rediscovery of ancient materialist theories of nature and culture. We consider in detail the important role played by demigods in the formation of Modernism in art and literature. Key texts include Schiller, "Naive and sentimental poetry," Nietzsche, Birth of Tragedy, Mallarmé, "L'Apres midi d'une faun," Aby Warburg's cultural-historical texts, and Stoppard's Arcadia. Problems include the relationship between nymphs and prostitutes in Manet, and the meaning of fauns and the Minotaur in Picasso. We conclude with demigods in popular culture such as the Narnia chronicles or Hunger Games. [ more ]

ENVI 454(F)Climate Change Physiology

Animals are increasingly faced with rapid climate change driven by human activities across the globe. How do they cope with challenges imposed by increasing temperature? And, how might physiological mechanisms at the organismal level scale up to influence population processes? This course uses an integrative approach to understand the impacts of climate change at multiple levels of biological organization in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. We examine physiological mechanisms underlying animal responses and the role of acclimation versus adaptation in coping with rapidly shifting thermal environments. We then consider the impacts of these mechanisms on whole organism performance and their consequences for population persistence. Finally, we learn the analytical tools used to incorporate physiological mechanisms into ecological models to predict future responses to global climate change. Class discussions will focus on readings drawn from the primary literature. [ more ]

ENVI 478Cold War Landscapes

Last offered Spring 2020

The Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union set in motion dramatic changes to the natural and built environments of many nations between 1945 and 1991. Nuclear test and missile launch sites, naval installations, military production operations, and border securitizations are just a few of the most obvious ways in which the stand-off between the two countries altered rural and urban landscapes around the world. But one can also see the Cold War as setting in motion less immediately direct but nonetheless profound changes to the way that many people saw and planned for the environments around them, as evidenced, for instance, by the rise of the American suburb, the reconstruction of postwar Europe, and agricultural and industrial initiatives in many developing nations. We will begin this seminar by exploring several distinct "Cold War landscapes" in the United States, then move on to examining others in Europe and the Soviet Union. We will spend the final weeks of the semester discussing examples from other parts of the world. Our approach to our topics will be interdisciplinary throughout the semester, and students are welcome to write their research papers on any geographical area of the world. [ more ]

ENVI 491 T(F)The Suburbs

The suburbs transformed the United States. At the broadest level, they profoundly altered spatial residential geography (especially in terms of race), consumer expectations and behavior, governmental policies, cultural norms and assumptions, societal connections, and Americans' relationship to nature. More specifically, the different waves of post-World War II suburban development have both reflected large-scale shifts in how power and money have operated in the American political economy; and set in motion deep-seated changes in electoral politics, in Americans' understandings of how their income should be used, and in how the built landscape should be re-imagined. This tutorial will explore the rich historical literature that has emerged over the last twenty years to provide students with a history of the suburbs, to see the suburbs as more than simply collections of houses that drew individual homeowners who wanted to leave urban areas. We will focus most of our attention on the period from 1945 through the 1980s. Some of the questions we will consider will include: how did the first wave of suburban development bring together postwar racial and Cold War ideologies? Is it possible, as one historian has argued, that suburbs actually created the environmental movement of the 1960s? And how have historians understood the role that suburbs played in America's conservative political turn, leading to the election of Ronald Reagan? [ more ]

ENVI 493(F)Senior Research and Thesis: Environmental Studies

Environmental Studies senior research and thesis; this is part of a full-year thesis (493-494). [ more ]

ENVI 494(S)Senior Research and Thesis: Environmental Studies

Environmental Studies senior research and thesis; this is part of a full-year thesis (493-494). [ more ]